It is an early autumn of the winter which falls into the foliage. Since when, we end up worrying about the flu when the cold winter begins. Influenza is the most common cause of influenza in the world. Influenza has a high risk of complications in the elderly, children and people with contagious disease, unlike a cold, and has low immunity. Complications can progress and can be life-threatening.
An effective way to prevent the dangerous flu is the influenza vaccine (prevention). In this article, take a closer look at influenza, flu vaccine.
Our bodies have the ability to distinguish between the self and the foreign matter of our body. Immunity to a particular substance in a human body means that it is equipped with the ability to fight against the invading material from the outside. In other words, if we get a vaccine to prevent a specific infection, we have immunity to it in the human body. This immunity is divided into active immunity and passive immunity depending on how they are created. Here, active immunity is created through the internal immune system of the human body and is mostly fixed. Passive immunity, however, occurs when an immunological substance made using an animal or a person is administered to the subject by oral or injection. Most of these passive vaccinations will disappear within weeks to months. One of the passive vaccines is the flu vaccine.1)
Influenza viruses, which cause influenza, are divided into Type A, Type B, Type C viruses and depending on the antigenicity of the protein. Of these, 95% of influenza viruses are type A viruses, which have antigens of HA and NA protein over the virus. HA plays a role in the association of somatic cells to viruses and distinguishes them from H1 to H18 according to their characteristics. And NA is also categorized as N11 type to N11 type according to protein antigen characteristics (eg, influenza A / H1N1). Where H is the first letter of hemagglutinin and N is the first letter of neuraminidase. Theoretically, there are 198 combinations. In addition to Type A, 5% are Type B, and there are two types, Victoria and Yamagata. And type C was not associated with general pandemic influenza (1) 2 (3)
As mentioned, there are two types of type B (Yamagata, Victoria), but the type is caused by a genetic mutation of H and N antigens on the surface of the virus so that many types can be shown. However, in general, flu-causing influenza in humans are known as H1, H2, H3, N1, N2.
To produce an influenza vaccine that is highly passive and mutated, it is necessary to assess the mutation of the antigens of strains which may be popular. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the types of flu vaccines every year and announces that the virus will be included in the trivalent vaccine. The results are published in the northern hemisphere from February to March and in the southern hemisphere from September. When vaccinations are made on this basis, 10 to 15 experts from the United States, Britain, Australia and Japan will confirm the effectiveness of the vaccine and provide the vaccine to each country The time needed to produce the vaccine is about 6 months. The tetrivalent vaccine contains two types A and B one type (one type of Yamagata and Victoria) to ensure immunity against three types of viruses, whereas the tetralent vaccine contains one type B virus in the triple vaccine, The 4-valent vaccine contains two types of A viruses and two types of B viruses (both Yamagata and Victoria) .The person is immunized with the vaccine The flu will have the ability to protect and remove the virus if it is infected.) 3)
Recommendations for flu vaccination are children and adults for at least 6 months. This high risk group consists of elderly people aged 65 and over, children aged 6 to 59 months, chronic chronic respiratory disease or chronic cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney function, chronic epilepsy, hemochromatosis, patients with immunizations, aspirin patients taking medications, pregnant women , Chronic diseases are treated in community facilities, patients with nervous system at risk of developing pneumonia, and those with high body mass index (over 30). In general, the period of influenza epidemics is December to April of next year. It takes about 2 weeks to produce antibodies after vaccination, but there are individual differences but the effect is about 6 months. Therefore, the vaccine vaccination period is appropriate from October to November. (3)
Moon-e-In has declared that the National Government project will expand the number of people eligible for national immunity projects. Currently, the flu vaccine which is immune to free subjects in the government is trivalent (including one of two types of B). If you are a free vaccine, you will be responsible for the entire cost if you choose a quadrivalent vaccine (including both Yamagata and Victoria type B) that are not trivalent. If people other than the person vaccinated choose the 4-dose vaccine, the cost is higher when the vaccine is administered.
In general, the triple vaccine recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) can prevent the flu. However, an exception may occur where the missing is missing. However, even if an abnormal condition occurs, the vaccine does not have immunity at all. In some studies, influenza-type B viruses have reported a "trans-immune" effect that causes immune effects against other types of B-type viruses. "Victorian vaccine vaccines can achieve 30 percent immunity against yamagata-type worms," the ministry said. On the other hand, doctors claim that the "4-valent vaccine should be chosen because the difference between vaccine efficacy between 3-valent and 4-valent vaccines is significant." 3) 4 (5)
Currently, the National Immunization Program for the 2018-209 season chooses the flu vaccine 3 and runs the free vaccine program. In addition, the National Assembly's budget for the Influenza Vaccine Project 2019 is considering the introduction of the vaccine into three vaccines. Some claim that the 4-species vaccine should be fully implemented in view of the effectiveness and capital of the national vaccine program. On the other hand, some argue that the application of the 4-valent vaccine should take into account different aspects of the market such as production conditions and prices of supply of pharmaceutical companies. Currently, relevant government ministries are trying to explore the possibility of increasing the budget at the Diet level to convert the vaccine into a 4-stage vaccine in 2019. 4)
Today, the free vaccination program has been expanded and implemented in Israel. In other words, I think it is time to discuss and discuss with the government through more detailed and detailed research. First of all, it is necessary to establish priorities and implement cost-effectiveness analysis for the national vaccine program seeking. It is necessary to study and analyze the absolute difference and the relative difference of the "immunity effect" of the 4-stage influenza vaccine and trivolent vaccine produced today by local and foreign pharmaceutical companies. In this study, we need to understand whether the "immunological effect" of the triple vaccine is significantly lower than the tetravalent vaccine effect and the cost of the additional treatment. As a result, if the difference in the 'Immunity Effect' Is amazing, it is necessary to prioritize for social vaccination issues through the social debate and actively review the transition from vaccination 3 to 4 vaccine implementation gradually. However, this means that the unconditional supply of vaccines in four species, in the absence of clear and accurate comparative studies and the accumulation of clinical data, suggests a misuse of the national budget. Reliable research is urgent for the argument. In addition, through the national social debate, we need to explain the difference between the immune effect of a flu vaccine and all individuals in detail and help people choose for themselves.
1) Disease Control Headquarters, 2017, Purpose of Vaccines Epidemiology and Infectious Disease Management: Standards and Methods of Vaccination
2) Kim Wu-Jou, 2018, the current situation and future responses against domestic flu,
3) Binary, 2018, Flu treatment and prevention, J Korean Med Assoc.