It is rare to see extreme close-up of our Sun, but this photo gives us the opportunity to look. This part of the Sun is called a chromosphere, the second of the three layers of the star. You can see the dark sunspots, along with a thin filament and lighter regions called beaches, taken from the French word for "beach." Sun powers are temporary features, sometimes lasting only a day, and sometimes the Sun is riddled with them, while other times it is completely naked. Interestingly, the dark sunspots are much cooler than the surrounding area – they form as magnetic fields twist around each other, essentially cutting off the flow of gas and leaving the region cooler.
A. de Burgos / ESA / ESAC / CESAR