In the next selection of the most interesting scientific news:
- Alzheimer's disease can be associated with gum disease.
- Water Water – Time pump for future generations
- Peak smell cools up the appetite
- Life on Earth could have been a collision with another planet.
New data on the infectious nature of Alzheimer's disease
An increasing number of scientific publications confirms the alarming hypothesis that Alzheimer's syndrome is an infectious disease.
Recently, scientists have received another and a very strong testimony about the existence of a link between the bacterium and the symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and the source of this danger was unexpected.
An article by a group of authors led by a physiologist Jan Potemp from the University of Louisville provides information on the detection of the bacterium. Porphyromonas gingivalis in the brain of patients suffering from Alzheimer's syndrome. This microorganism appears as a result of chronic periodontitis or inflammation of the gums that affect hundreds of millions of people.
Experiments in laboratory animals indicate that this pathogenic bacterium that causes gum inflammation penetrates the brain and stimulates the production of amyloid proteins, which form plagues, which are the main symptom of Alzheimer's disease.
A researcher coordinated by the pharmacological company Cortexyme is not trying to discover the true cause of Alzheimer's disease. At least for now.
"Infected pathogens have previously been suspected of causing or contributing to the development of Alzheimer's symptoms, but for the first time we have received a convincing test based on the cause of bacterial infection with this terrible disease," says Stephen Domini's head.
In addition, scientists could identify a group of toxic enzymes, which are separated from bacteria that have entered the brain affected by Alzheimer's syndrome. These toxins are related to two different markers of the disease: a group of tau proteins and protein, ubiquitine.
"Our discovery of antigen of such toxins in the brain of people suffering from Alzheimer's disease, as well as people with Alzhemer's pathology, but those who are not diagnosed with dementia, indicate that colonization of the brain with bacteria P. gingivalis It is not the result of a common illness caused by poor dental care as a result of dementia, but a previous event that precedes the beginning of dementia's dementia in old patients, "the authors of the article note.
Created by the company under the COR388 neck, who already undergoes clinical tests in patients with Alzheimer's disease, has been proven during experiments on mice that it can reduce the number of bacteria P. gingivalis, settled in the brain as a result of an infection, reducing the production of beta-amyloid and neuron-inflammation.
Scientists are very careful about this research. Over the last 15 years, large global pharmacological companies have not offered only treatment for Alzheimer's disease, and many of them have stopped exploring in this region, finding them ineffective.
These results are published by the Science Advances magazine.
Water reserves are not endless, hydrologists warn
More than two billion people around the world are totally dependent on the water reserves contained in the aquatic horizons.
In the face of the increasing global climate change, this dependency is increasingly evident. Recent studies of geologists and ecologists have revealed that the water reserves respond differently to climate change in different climatic zones.
- Metropolitan areas that face a lack of drinking water
- Too hot The Londoners who survived the Great Stench of 1858 would not understand you
For example, in the Sahara Desert there are reservoirs of underground waters that were formed 10 million years ago.
By about half a century, many countries in this region began active exploitation of underground water supplies. However, the restoration of watercourses is slowing down due to a decline in full rainfall in northern Africa.
In many parts of the Sahara, before the mid-century, there were extensive palm forests, which can only grow under surface underground water – not more than 6 meters. Over the years, many such forests and crops have just died, because the level of waterfalls fell by hundreds of meters.
In other cases, for example, as in Tunisia or Egypt, water forms are now pumped with pump stations of a depth of 2-3 km. They must first be cooled for use in waterproofing plants.
Thus, this problem is a time-bomb that we leave to future generations. Our grandchildren must solve it before a much more serious media crisis.
"Our research indicates that underwater reservoirs are extremely inert in their response to climate change, and only half of all underwater in the world is fitting in the 100-year scale that people usually work," said Mark Cuthbert of Cardiff University, who participated in recent study of underwater problems.
"This means that in many parts of the world, for example in the Amazon Valley or in central Africa, where there are many rains, such changes take place every 10 years, that is very fast. But in Sahara, waterfalls are still reacting to climate change , which took place 10 thousand years ago, "- says the scientist.
Data on this study is published in the Nature Climate Change magazine.
The scent of fat foods leads to the reduction of appetite.
There are new data on the effect of smell on appetite. A group of American biologists found that breathing in the fat smell for more than two minutes suppressed the recipients that control hunger.
The time factor here is decisive – the first reaction to the scent is a hunger attack, but the prolonged effect of smell represses it.
- Lying food that some people consider true delicacy
- The smell of fresh bread and hot chocolate. How do we force to buy?
"The smell in the room can be a powerful appetite suppressant," says one Deepan Biswas researcher from the University of South Florida.
Scientists now propose to apply this technique to school singers or in large stores. They tried it in practical experiments, scratching the flavors of apples, strawberries, peas and pastries in such rooms.
In typical school meats in the United States, where around 900 schools will eat, the number of appeals to sick foods fell to 21.43% as a result of peak-smell evaporation. The smell of apples led to a reduction in such purchases to 36.96%, and the lack of smell gave a 36.54% figure.
Scientists attribute these results to the fact that the human brain can not accurately distinguish the sources of pleasant feelings.
"We suppose that the smell of food that is particularly attractive activates the centers of pleasure in the brain, causing satisfaction that reduces the real use of such food," says the publication.
So do not surprise, if during the next flight you feel the strong smell of peak in the cabin – maybe the airline tries to influence your appetite to reduce it.
The article is published in the latest subject of the Journal of Marketing Research.
A shock with an unknown planet could lead to the emergence of life on Earth
An organic life on Earth could have sprinkled not as a result of natural processes, but after a collision with a large planet the size of this March before about 4 billion years.
This is described in an article in the Science Advances magazine.
A new hypothesis is based on the fact that this hypothetic planet, called Thea, a collision that also led to the formation of the Moon, brought with it elements such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur, which previously existed on Earth, which are necessary components of organic synthesis.
- Scientists: The moon has come from hitting a similar body on Earth
- The disaster, through which we live
Based on the facts known to us, it is difficult to explain that, as in the Earth at the early stages of its formation, there could be so many voluminous substances and gases that have been involved in the formation of atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.
Previously, it was believed that during the initial stages of the formation of the Solar System, the Earth was subjected to intense bombing of meteorites and asteroids, which had light elements, especially carbon, for hundreds of millions of years.
However, the isotope composition of the most common meteorite contests shows that these elements were too small to begin the process of the origin of life on Earth.
In a series of practical experiments, scientists reproduced the conditions that existed then on the surface of the Earth, in the presence of high pressure and temperature. Scandante incandesca magma with various compounds, scientists determined when magnesium sulfur led to the release of carbon and nitrogen, which are at the silicone rocks of the outer bark of the Earth.
Armed with this data, scientists have obtained computer models of about milliard scenarios that describe the formation of volatile components in the biosphere.
"We found that all the indicators – the isotope composition, the proportion of nitrogen and carbon, as well as the total amount of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in the silicone rocks of the Earth – do not contradict the size of the collision of our planet with another A celebrity body the size of Mars that has a lot of sulfur and light elements, "writes the researchers.